Frozen Head State Park: A Nature Lover’s Paradise
Nestled in the heart of Tennessee’s Cumberland Mountains, Frozen Head State Park is a haven for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers alike. With its breathtaking scenery, diverse wildlife, and a plethora of recreational activities, this state park offers a truly immersive experience in the great outdoors. Whether you’re an avid hiker, a wildlife enthusiast, or simply seeking a peaceful escape from the hustle and bustle of everyday life, Frozen Head State Park has something for everyone. From its towering peaks to its tranquil streams, this hidden gem is a must-visit destination for those seeking to reconnect with nature and explore the wonders of the natural world. So pack your bags, lace up your hiking boots, and get ready to embark on an unforgettable adventure in Frozen Head State Park.
- Frozen Head State Park is a popular outdoor destination in Tennessee.
- The park offers a variety of activities, including hiking, camping, and wildlife viewing.
- Visitors can explore the park’s diverse ecosystems, including forests, waterfalls, and mountain peaks.
- Frozen Head State Park is home to the challenging Barkley Marathons, a renowned ultramarathon race.
- The park’s scenic beauty and abundant recreational opportunities make it a must-visit for nature enthusiasts.
The Allure of Frozen Head State Park
A. The Origin of the Park’s Unique Name
Frozen Head State Park, located in Morgan County, Tennessee, is a captivating destination that offers a wide range of outdoor activities and breathtaking natural beauty. But have you ever wondered how this park got its intriguing name?
The name “Frozen Head” dates back to the early 1900s when the area was known for its coal mining industry. The mountain range within the park was a significant source of coal, and miners would often refer to it as “Frozen Head” due to the cold temperatures and icy conditions they encountered while working there.
Over time, the name stuck, and when the state of Tennessee acquired the land to establish a state park, they decided to keep the unique name as a nod to the area‘s history. Today, Frozen Head State Park stands as a testament to the resilience of the miners who braved the harsh conditions in pursuit of coal.
B. The Park’s Location in Morgan County, Tennessee
Nestled in the heart of the Cumberland Plateau, Frozen Head State Park is situated in Morgan County, Tennessee. This picturesque region is renowned for its stunning natural landscapes and abundant wildlife, making it a haven for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers.
Spanning over 24,000 acres, the park offers a diverse range of ecosystems, including dense forests, rolling hills, and majestic mountain peaks. The Cumberland mountain range, which encompasses Frozen Head State Park, adds to the park’s allure, providing visitors with panoramic views and a sense of tranquility.
The park is easily accessible, located just a short drive from major cities like Knoxville and Oak Ridge. Whether you’re a Tennessee resident or a visitor from out of state, Frozen Head State Park is a convenient and rewarding destination for outdoor adventure.
As you explore the park, you’ll discover a network of well-maintained trails that cater to hikers of all skill levels. From leisurely strolls through the forest to challenging treks up the mountain, there’s a trail for everyone to enjoy. Along the way, keep an eye out for the diverse wildlife that calls the park home, including deer, black bears, and a variety of bird species.
In addition to hiking, Frozen Head State Park offers a range of recreational activities. Camping sites are available for those who want to immerse themselves in nature and spend a night under the stars. Picnic areas provide the perfect spot for a family gathering or a peaceful lunch surrounded by the park’s natural beauty.
Park facilities, including restrooms and a visitor center, ensure that visitors have all the amenities they need for a comfortable and enjoyable stay. Park rangers are also on hand to provide information and guidance, ensuring that your visit to Frozen Head State Park is both safe and memorable.
Whether you’re seeking a peaceful retreat in nature, an adrenaline-pumping hike, or a chance to observe wildlife in their natural habitat, Frozen Head State Park has it all. Plan your visit today and experience the allure of this remarkable Tennessee state park.
Exploring the Park: A Comprehensive Map Guide
A. Navigating the Park’s Trail System
When visiting Frozen Head State Park, one of the best ways to fully immerse yourself in the natural beauty of the area is by exploring the park’s extensive trail system. With over 50 miles of trails, there is something for everyone, from casual hikers to seasoned adventurers.
The trails at Frozen Head State Park offer a variety of experiences, from easy strolls through the forest to challenging hikes up steep mountain ridges. Whether you’re looking for a leisurely walk or a more strenuous workout, you’ll find a trail that suits your needs.
To help you navigate the park’s trail system, be sure to pick up a trail map at the visitor center or download one from the park’s website before your visit. The map provides detailed information about each trail, including its length, difficulty level, and points of interest along the way.
Here are a few popular trails to consider:
Old Mac Trail: This easy 1-mile loop trail is perfect for families and beginners. It winds through a beautiful forested area, offering glimpses of wildlife and wildflowers along the way.
Panther Branch Trail: For a moderate hike, try the 3-mile Panther Branch Trail. This trail takes you through diverse terrain, including hardwood forests and rocky outcroppings. Keep an eye out for the park’s resident wildlife, such as deer and turkey.
Spicewood Trail: If you’re up for a challenge, the Spicewood Trail is a must-try. This 10-mile trail takes you to the summit of Frozen Head, offering breathtaking views of the surrounding Cumberland Plateau. Be prepared for steep ascents and rocky terrain.
Remember to wear appropriate footwear and bring plenty of water and snacks, especially for longer hikes. It’s also a good idea to let someone know your hiking plans and estimated return time, just in case.
B. Highlighting the Iconic Yellow Gate
One of the most iconic features of Frozen Head State Park is the yellow gate located at the entrance of the park. This gate holds a special significance for hikers and outdoor enthusiasts, as it marks the starting point of the challenging and renowned Barkley Marathons.
The Barkley Marathons is an extreme ultramarathon that covers approximately 100 miles through the rugged terrain of Frozen Head State Park. The race is known for its grueling course, unpredictable weather conditions, and strict time limits. Only a handful of participants have ever completed the full race.
Even if you’re not participating in the Barkley Marathons, the yellow gate is still worth a visit. It serves as a symbol of the park’s adventurous spirit and the determination of those who take on its challenging trails.
As you pass through the yellow gate, you’ll find yourself surrounded by the park’s natural beauty. The towering trees, babbling streams, and peaceful atmosphere create a sense of tranquility and awe. Take a moment to soak in the scenery and appreciate the wonders of nature.
While the yellow gate may be the starting point for the Barkley Marathons, it also serves as a gateway to a world of outdoor adventure and exploration. Whether you’re hiking, camping, bird watching, or simply enjoying a picnic, Frozen Head State Park offers something for everyone.
So, lace up your hiking boots, grab your camera, and get ready to embark on an unforgettable journey through the breathtaking landscapes of Frozen Head State Park.
The Richness of Nature: Flora, Fauna, and Natural Features
A. The Presence of Bears in the Park
Frozen Head State Park is not only known for its stunning natural beauty but also for its diverse wildlife population. One of the most fascinating creatures that call this park home is the black bear. These majestic animals are a symbol of wilderness and are an integral part of the park’s ecosystem.
The park provides a suitable habitat for bears, with its dense forests and abundant food sources. Visitors may be lucky enough to catch a glimpse of these magnificent creatures as they roam through the park in search of berries, nuts, and other vegetation. However, it’s important to remember that bears are wild animals and should be observed from a safe distance.
To ensure the safety of both visitors and bears, the park has implemented guidelines for bear encounters. These guidelines include storing food properly, keeping a safe distance, and avoiding any actions that may attract bears. By following these guidelines, visitors can enjoy the presence of bears in the park while minimizing any potential risks.
B. The Spectacular Waterfalls of Frozen Head State Park
One of the most breathtaking features of Frozen Head State Park is its collection of spectacular waterfalls. These cascading wonders are a testament to the power and beauty of nature. As visitors explore the park’s trails, they will come across several stunning waterfalls that are sure to leave them in awe.
One of the most popular waterfalls in the park is Debord Falls. With its 12-foot drop, it offers a mesmerizing sight and a perfect spot for nature enthusiasts to capture stunning photographs. Another must-see waterfall is Emory Gap Falls, which boasts a 25-foot drop and a picturesque setting that is worth the hike.
Visitors can also explore the beauty of Frozen Head State Park by following the Panther Branch Falls Trail. This trail leads to a series of smaller waterfalls, each with its own unique charm. Whether it’s the sound of rushing water or the sight of sunlight glistening off the cascades, the waterfalls in Frozen Head State Park provide a serene and enchanting experience for all.
C. The Park’s Fishing Opportunities
For those who enjoy the tranquility of fishing, Frozen Head State Park offers a variety of opportunities to cast a line and reel in a catch. The park is home to several streams and rivers that are teeming with fish, making it a haven for anglers of all skill levels.
One of the most popular fishing spots in the park is the Emory River. This river is known for its abundance of smallmouth bass, trout, and other freshwater species. Anglers can spend a peaceful day casting their lines and enjoying the serene surroundings of the park.
In addition to the Emory River, there are also several smaller streams and ponds within the park that offer excellent fishing opportunities. These secluded spots provide a peaceful escape where anglers can relax and enjoy the beauty of nature while waiting for the fish to bite.
Before heading out to fish in Frozen Head State Park, it’s important to obtain the necessary fishing license and familiarize yourself with the park’s fishing regulations. By adhering to these regulations, anglers can help preserve the park’s fish populations and ensure a sustainable fishing experience for future generations.
In conclusion, Frozen Head State Park is a haven for nature lovers, offering a rich tapestry of flora, fauna, and natural features. From the presence of bears to the spectacular waterfalls and fishing opportunities, the park provides a unique and immersive experience for visitors. Whether you’re a wildlife enthusiast, a waterfall chaser, or an avid angler, Frozen Head State Park has something to offer for everyone. So pack your gear, lace up your hiking boots, and embark on an unforgettable adventure in this natural paradise.
The Campground Experience at Frozen Head State Park
A. Making Camping Reservations
When it comes to planning a camping trip at Frozen Head State Park, making reservations is an essential step. The park offers a variety of camping options, including tent camping and RV camping. To ensure you secure a spot, it is recommended to make your reservations in advance.
To make camping reservations at Frozen Head State Park, you can visit the official Tennessee State Parks website or call their reservation hotline. The online reservation system is user-friendly and allows you to search for available campsites based on your preferred dates and camping preferences.
It’s important to note that the campground at Frozen Head State Park is quite popular, especially during peak seasons. Therefore, it is advisable to book your campsite well in advance to guarantee your spot. By planning ahead, you can avoid any last-minute disappointments and ensure a smooth camping experience.
B. Amenities at the Park’s Campground
Frozen Head State Park’s campground offers a range of amenities to enhance your camping experience. Whether you’re a seasoned camper or new to the outdoors, you’ll find everything you need to make your stay comfortable and enjoyable.
Each campsite at Frozen Head State Park is equipped with a picnic table and a fire ring, perfect for cooking meals and gathering around the campfire in the evenings. The campground also provides access to clean restroom facilities and hot showers, ensuring you can freshen up after a day of outdoor activities.
For those who prefer RV camping, the park offers RV-friendly campsites with electrical and water hookups. This makes it convenient for campers to power their RVs and have access to running water during their stay.
Additionally, the campground provides easy access to various recreational facilities within the park. You can explore the numerous hiking trails, go bird watching, or indulge in wildlife viewing. The park’s natural beauty and scenic views make it an ideal destination for outdoor enthusiasts.
C. The Park’s Dog-Friendly Policies
If you’re a pet owner, you’ll be pleased to know that Frozen Head State Park welcomes dogs in their campground. However, it’s important to familiarize yourself with the park’s dog-friendly policies to ensure a pleasant experience for both you and your furry friend.
When camping with your dog at Frozen Head State Park, it is required to keep your pet on a leash at all times. This rule is in place to protect the park’s wildlife and other visitors. Additionally, it’s crucial to clean up after your pet and dispose of waste properly to maintain the park’s cleanliness.
While dogs are allowed in the campground, they may not be permitted on certain trails within the park. It’s recommended to check with park rangers or refer to the park’s visitor information for specific guidelines on dog-friendly trails.
By adhering to the park’s dog-friendly policies, you can enjoy a wonderful camping experience with your four-legged companion at Frozen Head State Park.
In conclusion, the campground experience at Frozen Head State Park offers a range of amenities and opportunities for outdoor adventure. By making camping reservations in advance, taking advantage of the park’s amenities, and following the dog-friendly policies, you can create lasting memories in this beautiful Tennessee state park. So pack your camping gear, gather your loved ones, and get ready to immerse yourself in the natural beauty of Frozen Head State Park.
The Visitor Center: A Hub of Information and Services
The Visitor Center at Frozen Head State Park serves as a central hub for visitors, providing a wealth of information and essential services. Whether you’re a first-time visitor or a seasoned explorer, the Visitor Center is the perfect place to start your adventure in this stunning natural wonderland.
A. Services and Facilities at the Visitor Center
The Visitor Center offers a range of services and facilities designed to enhance your experience at Frozen Head State Park. Here, you’ll find friendly and knowledgeable park rangers who are ready to assist you with any questions or concerns you may have. They can provide you with maps, brochures, and other helpful resources to help you navigate the park’s trails and attractions.
Additionally, the Visitor Center features a gift shop where you can purchase souvenirs, books, and other items related to the park and its wildlife. It’s a great place to find a memento to remember your visit or to pick up a gift for a nature-loving friend or family member.
If you’re planning to spend the day exploring the park, you’ll be pleased to know that the Visitor Center also has restroom facilities and drinking water available. These amenities ensure that you can stay refreshed and comfortable throughout your visit.
B. The Park’s Weather Information and Safety Measures
When venturing into the great outdoors, it’s essential to be aware of the weather conditions and take necessary safety precautions. The Visitor Center at Frozen Head State Park provides up-to-date weather information to help you plan your activities accordingly.
Park rangers can inform you about the current weather forecast, including temperature, precipitation, and any potential hazards such as storms or extreme heat. This information is crucial for hikers, campers, and other outdoor enthusiasts, as it allows them to make informed decisions about their plans and ensure their safety.
In addition to weather information, the Visitor Center also provides guidance on safety measures to follow while exploring the park. They can advise you on proper hiking techniques, wildlife encounters, and any specific precautions you should take depending on the season or trail conditions.
By visiting the Visitor Center before embarking on your adventure, you can equip yourself with the knowledge and resources necessary to have a safe and enjoyable experience at Frozen Head State Park.
| Services and Facilities at the Visitor Center | The Park’s Weather Information and Safety Measures | |———————————————|—————————————————-| | – Knowledgeable park rangers | – Up-to-date weather information | | – Maps and brochures | – Current temperature and precipitation | | – Gift shop | – Hazard alerts and storm warnings | | – Restroom facilities and drinking water | – Safety measures and hiking tips |
The Visitor Center at Frozen Head State Park is more than just a starting point for your adventure; it’s a valuable resource that ensures you have a memorable and safe experience in this breathtaking natural setting. Make sure to stop by the Visitor Center to gather all the information you need before setting off on your exploration of the park’s trails, mountains, and scenic wonders.
The Thrill of Competition: Marathons and Ultramarathons
A. The Legendary Barkley Marathon
One of the most grueling and legendary races in the world, the Barkley Marathon is an event that pushes even the most seasoned runners to their limits. Held annually at Frozen Head State Park, this ultramarathon covers a distance of approximately 100 miles through the rugged terrain of the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee.
The Barkley Marathon is not your typical race. In fact, it is intentionally designed to be incredibly challenging, with only a handful of participants managing to finish each year. The race is named after its founder, Gary “Lazarus Lake” Cantrell, who created it as a tribute to a notorious prison escape that took place in the park.
The race consists of five loops, each covering a different section of the park. Runners must navigate through dense forests, steep hills, and treacherous trails, all while battling unpredictable weather conditions. The course is unmarked, and participants must rely on their navigational skills to find hidden books along the way, which serve as proof of completing each loop.
To add to the difficulty, the Barkley Marathon has a strict time limit. Runners have 60 hours to complete the entire course, with each loop having its own cutoff time. This means that participants must maintain a steady pace and carefully manage their time to avoid being disqualified.
B. The Park’s Other Races and Ultramarathons
While the Barkley Marathon may be the most famous race held at Frozen Head State Park, it is not the only one. The park hosts a variety of other races and ultramarathons throughout the year, catering to runners of all skill levels.
One such event is the Frozen Head Trail Races, which include distances ranging from 10 miles to 50 kilometers. These races take participants through the park’s scenic trails, offering a challenging yet rewarding experience. Runners can enjoy the beauty of nature while testing their endurance and pushing their limits.
For those who prefer a shorter distance, the park also hosts road races and trail runs of varying lengths. These races provide an opportunity for runners to explore the park’s diverse landscapes, from mountain ridges to lush forests. Whether you’re a seasoned runner or just starting out, there’s a race at Frozen Head State Park that will suit your abilities and preferences.
In addition to the races, Frozen Head State Park offers a range of other outdoor activities for visitors to enjoy. From hiking and camping to bird watching and wildlife viewing, there’s something for everyone. The park’s facilities include picnic areas, recreational areas, and nature trails, providing ample opportunities for outdoor adventure and exploration.
If you’re planning a visit to Frozen Head State Park, be sure to check the park’s website for information on upcoming races and events. Whether you’re a runner looking for a challenge or simply want to immerse yourself in the natural beauty of Tennessee, the park has something to offer. Lace up your running shoes or grab your hiking boots and get ready for an unforgettable experience at Frozen Head State Park.
The Park’s Historical Significance: The Frozen Head State Park Prison
A. The History of the Park’s Prison
Frozen Head State Park, located in Tennessee, holds a unique historical significance due to its past as a prison. The park’s prison, known as Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary, operated from 1896 to 2009. Originally established as a coal mining prison, it later became a maximum-security facility housing some of Tennessee’s most notorious criminals.
The prison’s history is intertwined with the park’s development. In the early 20th century, the state purchased the land surrounding the prison to ensure a buffer zone for security purposes. Over time, the prison and the surrounding area became known as Frozen Head State Park, named after the nearby Frozen Head Mountain.
Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary gained notoriety for its strict security measures and its role in housing high-profile inmates. Notable prisoners included James Earl Ray, the assassin of Martin Luther King Jr., and Byron “Low Tax” Looper, a politician convicted of murder. The prison’s history is filled with stories of escape attempts, riots, and the everyday struggles of incarcerated individuals.
B. The Prison’s Impact on the Park’s Identity
The presence of the prison within Frozen Head State Park has had a significant impact on the park’s identity. While the prison is no longer operational, its history is an integral part of the park’s narrative. Visitors to the park can explore the remnants of the prison, including the cell blocks, guard towers, and the prison cemetery.
The prison’s history adds a layer of intrigue and historical context to the park. It serves as a reminder of the challenges faced by both the inmates and the staff who worked there. The stories of resilience and redemption that emerged from the prison walls contribute to the park’s unique atmosphere.
Today, Frozen Head State Park offers a range of recreational activities and amenities for visitors to enjoy. From hiking trails that wind through the scenic Cumberland Plateau to camping sites nestled in the forest, the park provides opportunities for nature preservation and outdoor adventure. Bird watching, wildlife viewing, and picnicking are popular activities, allowing visitors to immerse themselves in the park’s natural beauty.
Park facilities, such as picnic areas and nature trails, cater to visitors of all ages and interests. Park rangers are available to provide information and guidance, ensuring a safe and enjoyable experience for all. The park also hosts events throughout the year, including guided hikes, educational programs, and nature exploration activities.
In conclusion, the historical significance of the Frozen Head State Park prison adds depth and character to the park’s identity. While the prison’s past may be filled with darkness, the park now offers a place of beauty, recreation, and reflection. Visitors can explore the remnants of the prison while immersing themselves in the natural wonders of the Cumberland Plateau. Frozen Head State Park stands as a testament to the power of nature to heal and transform, reminding us of the resilience of the human spirit.
Swimming in Frozen Head State Park: A Refreshing Experience
A. The Park’s Swimming Opportunities
Frozen Head State Park offers visitors a unique opportunity to cool off and enjoy a refreshing swim in its pristine natural surroundings. The park boasts several swimming areas that are perfect for a day of fun in the water. Whether you’re looking to take a dip after a long hike or simply want to relax by the water’s edge, Frozen Head State Park has something for everyone.
One of the most popular swimming spots in the park is the picturesque Flat Fork Creek. This crystal-clear creek is fed by mountain springs, creating a tranquil oasis where visitors can escape the summer heat. The creek features shallow areas for wading and deeper sections for swimming. It’s the ideal spot to cool off and enjoy the beauty of nature.
Another great option for swimming in Frozen Head State Park is the park’s swimming lake. Nestled among the rolling hills and lush forests, the lake provides a serene setting for a refreshing swim. With its calm waters and sandy beach, it’s the perfect place to relax and soak up the sun. The lake is also a great spot for picnicking, so you can enjoy a leisurely lunch before or after your swim.
B. Safety Measures for Swimming in the Park
While swimming in Frozen Head State Park can be a delightful experience, it’s important to prioritize safety. Here are some safety measures to keep in mind when enjoying the park’s swimming opportunities:
Swim in designated areas: Stick to the designated swimming areas to ensure your safety. These areas are regularly monitored and maintained by park rangers, ensuring a safe and enjoyable experience.
Supervise children: If you’re visiting the park with children, always keep a close eye on them while they’re swimming. Children should never be left unattended near the water.
Be aware of water conditions: Before entering the water, take a moment to assess the conditions. Look out for any signs of strong currents or underwater hazards. If the water appears unsafe, it’s best to avoid swimming.
Stay hydrated: Swimming can be physically demanding, so it’s important to stay hydrated. Bring plenty of water with you and take regular breaks to rehydrate.
Use sunscreen: Protect your skin from the sun‘s harmful rays by applying sunscreen before swimming. Choose a waterproof sunscreen with a high SPF and reapply it regularly throughout the day.
By following these safety measures, you can ensure a safe and enjoyable swimming experience in Frozen Head State Park. So grab your swimsuit, pack a picnic, and head to the park for a refreshing day by the water. Conclusion
In conclusion, Frozen Head State Park is a hidden gem nestled in the heart of Tennessee. With its diverse range of activities and breathtaking natural beauty, it offers something for everyone. Whether you’re an avid hiker looking to conquer the challenging trails, a wildlife enthusiast hoping to spot some rare species, or simply seeking a peaceful escape from the hustle and bustle of everyday life, Frozen Head State Park has it all. From the majestic waterfalls to the stunning vistas, this park never fails to impress. So, pack your bags, lace up your hiking boots, and get ready to embark on an unforgettable adventure at Frozen Head State Park.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What facilities are available at Frozen Head State Park?
Frozen Head State Park offers a variety of facilities for visitors to enjoy. These include camping sites, picnic areas, a visitor center, and trails for hiking and nature exploration. The park also provides opportunities for bird watching, wildlife viewing, and other outdoor activities.
2. Where is Frozen Head State Park located?
Frozen Head State Park is located in Morgan County, Tennessee. It’s nestled in the Cumberland Plateau, offering scenic views of the Cumberland mountain range and the natural beauty of Tennessee’s nature parks.
3. Can I go fishing at Frozen Head State Park?
Yes, fishing is one of the recreational activities available at Frozen Head State Park. However, please ensure to follow all state park regulations and guidelines to protect the park’s wildlife and natural resources.
4. Is there a trail map available for Frozen Head State Park?
Yes, a trail map for Frozen Head State Park is available. You can obtain one from the park visitor center or view it online. The map will guide you through the park’s forest trails, nature trails, and other paths for hiking and nature exploration.
5. Can I bring my dog to Frozen Head State Park?
Yes, dogs are allowed at Frozen Head State Park. However, they must be kept on a leash at all times to ensure the safety of park wildlife and other visitors.
6. How can I make camping reservations at Frozen Head State Park?
Camping reservations at Frozen Head State Park can be made online or by contacting the park directly. It’s advisable to make your reservation in advance, especially during peak seasons, to secure your preferred camping site.
7. What is the origin of the name ‘Frozen Head State Park’?
The name ‘Frozen Head‘ comes from one of the park’s highest peaks, Frozen Head Mountain. The peak often has a cap of snow in the winter months, giving it a ‘frozen’ appearance, hence the name.
8. What events are held at Frozen Head State Park?
Frozen Head State Park hosts a variety of events throughout the year, including the famous Barkley Marathons and other races. The park also organizes wildlife viewing events, bird watching activities, and nature exploration programs.
9. What wildlife can I see at Frozen Head State Park?
Frozen Head State Park is home to a diverse range of Tennessee wildlife. Visitors can spot various bird species, bears, and other wildlife. However, it’s important to observe all wildlife from a safe distance and not disturb their natural habitats.
10. How far is Frozen Head State Park from me?
The distance to Frozen Head State Park depends on your current location. You can use online map services to calculate the distance and get directions to the park. Please note that the park is located in Morgan County, Tennessee.